This is the CJBS 250-Research Methods & Statistics for Criminal Justice OER Resource Guide. The guide is intended for faculty teaching CJBS250 as a "Zero-Cost Textbook" course. This page features OER textbooks, zero cost library resources, government data sources, and interactive resources such as open source data visualization tools and course exercises.
OER Core Textbook
Module 1: Research Inquiry
"There are six key steps that tend to characterize the scientific method. The first step is the question. This is the part where a scientist proposes the problem that he or she wants to solve. A well-conceived question usually leads to a hypothesis, a potential answer to the question at hand. Sometimes, hypotheses look more like predictions. The scientist predicts what the outcome will be when he or she tests the hypothesis. The scientist's test is also called the experiment. Experiments are ordered investigations that are intended to prove or disprove a hypothesis. Important data comes from performing an experiment."
How do we establish a cause-effect (causal) relationship? What criteria do we have to meet? Generally, there are three criteria that you must meet before you can say that you have evidence for a causal relationship. This website is from the "Web Center for Social Research Methods.
This website contains popular press articles reporting an array of research results. Its design supports teaching and learning, and example assignments call for students to evaluate whether the reported results are associated with experiments or with correlational studies.
This study compares how professional fact checkers, historians, and first year college students evaluated online information and presents the strategies fact checkers used to efficiently and effectively find trustworthy information. This work is licensed under Creative Commons. It may be used, as long as you give credit to the author.
Module 2: Literature Review
Module 3: Building an Hypothesis
Module 4: Research Ethics
Click on the "Learner" box and then enter "City University of New York as the institution you are affiliated with. HSR provides foundational training in human subjects research and includes the historical development of human subject protections, ethical issues, and current regulatory and guidance information. Human Subjects Research (HSR) basic content is organized into two courses: Biomedical (Biomed) and Social-Behavioral-Educational (SBE). They are intended for anyone involved in research studies with human subjects, or who have responsibilities for setting policies and procedures with respect to such research, including Institutional Review Boards (IRBs). Additional modules of interest within HSR allow for exploration of several important topics and may be selected to meet organizational needs.
Module 5: Operationalization and Levels of Measurement
Module 6: Experimental Research Designs
Module 6a: Quasi-Experimental Designs
This book is still a classic, after over 50 years, for research design. Used for educational purposes under the Fair Use Provision. Found on the Internet at www.sfu.ca.
Module 7: Descriptive Statistics
Module 8: Correlation Coefficients
Module 9: Qualitative Research
From "The Crime Report", July 29, 2015. This is a John Jay publication, accessible from the Internet. "Randomized control trials may be the gold standard for research, but field studies that include victims and police officers are delicate and “there are practical and ethical considerations that may exclude their use,”
Fieldwork has always been a cornerstone of American social science. It was the definitive approach for the first 40 years in its history for the study of social life. It was an intellectual break for “armchair” sociologists who were content with simply theorizing and offering little more than speculative reasoning for the many unparalleled social changes occurring at the time. In these early days, circa 1890 to 1940, fieldwork was both an intellectual movement and a methodological prescription for the sociological analysis of both the community and the individual, with an emphasis on developing a holistic understanding of related social processes. By applying basic anthropological principles, fieldwork in the United States was very much an applied sociological endeavor that has been integral to the evolution of criminology.
Reflections from the ‘waiting field’. . . According to the abstract, "this article focuses on the importance of the ‘waiting field’; an opportunity to explore the times where real lives carry on before they make room for the intrusion of the data production of ‘the technique’ and remind us that much qualitative research is, in fact, an ethnographic undertaking: one that encompasses the researcher within and beyond the field."
This is a library resource, accessible using your John Jay login. "Based on interviews with a range of people about varied subjects, the author offers 25 directions that will, when followed in combination, point the interviewer along the road from the good (or not-so-good) interview to the great interview." From: "Qualitative Sociology", December 2002, Volume 25, Issue 4, pp 479–499
This how-to guide covers the mechanics of data collection for applied qualitative research appropriate for novice and experienced researchers. It's question and answer format and modular design make it easy for readers to find information on a particular topic quickly.
Module 10: Survey Research
Module 11: Probability and Sampling
Module 12: Taxonomy of Statistics
Module 13: Two Population Means
Module 14: Categorical Data
Module 15: Three or More Means Populations
Punishment (PUN) and rehabilitation (REH) attitudes toward sex offenders/offenses (SO) and nonsexual offenders/offenses (NSO) were compared in a sample of 355 undergraduates, in response to brief vignettes depicting a sexual and nonsexual offense, conceptually matched for seriousness and severity.