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Lloyd Sealy Library
John Jay College of Criminal Justice

NYPD - Historical and Current Research: Stop and Frisk

This is a guide mainly focusing on the history of the NYPD, but modern sources are covered too. By Ellen Belcher

NYPD Monitor

The Southern District of New York U.S. Court trial Floyd et. al. v NYC found the NYPD rules and practice of Stop, Question and Frisk unconstitutional in 2013. The ruling also mandated the appointment of a NYPD Monitor. The monitor produces reports, also available on the NYPD website and makes many other resources related to training, procedural changes and related topics freely available on their website

Legal Resources on Stop and Frisk

The Right to Know Act was passed by NYC Council and went into effect on October 19, 2018 see also: Change the NYPD Page

Floyd et. al. v City of New York a class action lawsuit [08 Civ. 1034 SAS] brought by CCR, NYC resulting in an August 2013 Southern District of NY U.S. Court ruling declaring Stop and Frisk as practiced by the NYPD is unconstitutional

Terry v Ohio (US Supreme Court 1968 -  392 U.S. 1Nexis Uni (CUNY use only)

Searches and Seizures § 92-93 & § 282 American Jurisprudence 2d vol. 68. Shelved near Reference Desk.
Stop and Frisk. Criminal procedure and the Supreme Court: a guide to the major decisions on search and seizure, privacy, and individual rights. Reference Law - KF9630 .C75 2010
Stop and Frisk. West's Encyclopedia of American Law. Vol. 9, p358-360. Shelved near Reference Desk, also digitally available from Gale E-Books (CUNY USE ONLY)
Whitebread, C. H. (2000) Stop and Frisk. Encyclopedia of the American Constitution.  Vol. 5, p2552-2553. Ask for volume at Reference Desk, also digitally available from Gale Virtual Reference Library (CUNY USE ONLY)
Woody, R. H. (2000) Search and Seizure: the Fourth Amendment for Law Enforcement Officers. Stacks - KF9630 .W66 2006

Criminal Justice Abstracts - Articles on Stop and Frisk

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Find Articles on Stop and Frisk

Try searching these terms in Academic Search Complete (CUNY USE ONLY) and/or Criminal Justice Abstracts (JOHN JAY USE ONLY)

Stop and Frisk

Racial Profiling and law enforcement

Racial Discrimination and Police

Police Procedure and Searches and Seizures

Terry and Stop

Police and Community Relations and New York

Stop and Frisk Data

The NYPD has web-published their Stop, Question and Frisk data by year starting in 2003.

NYPD (2013) Reasonable suspicion stops: precinct based comparison by stop and suspect description. Stacks - HV8148 .N52 N439 2013a  also available online

New York Police Department (NYPD) Stop, Question, and Frisk Database, 2006. Ann Arbor, Mich. : Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2008.  these data files are available on the web

NYACLU analysis of the NYPD data on stop and frisk by year

Stop and Frisk Info  The information in this website is maintained by The Center on Race, Crime and Justice at John Jay College.

News Articles on Stop and Frisk

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Books Articles & Reports - Stop and Frisk

Try searching some of these search terms in CUNY+ for books on Stop and Frisk

Racial profiling in law enforcement -- New York (State) -- New York

Racial Discrimination in law enforcement -- New York (State) -- New York

Criminal statistics -- New York (State) -- New York.

Epp, Charles (2014) Pulled over: how police stops define race and citizenship. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Stacks - HV7936 .R3 E77 2014

NYC-ACLU (2014) Report: Stop-and-Frisk During the Bloomberg Administration 2002-2013

Eterno, John and Eli Silverman (2012) The Crime numbers game : management by manipulation Reserve Room - 3 hour loan - HV8148 .N5 E837 2012 also available as an ebook

Jones-Brown, D., Stoudt, B., Johnston, B. & Moran, K. (July 2013). Stop, Question and Frisk Policing Practices in New York City: A Primer (2nd Edition). John Jay College Center on Race, Crime and Justice, New York, New York 

CCR (2012) Stop and Frisk: The Human Aspect. The Stories Behind the Numbers and the Effect on our Communities. 

Jones-Brown, Delores D. Stop, question & frisk policing practices in New York City : a primer. Special Collections Room - HV8148 .N52 J66 2010 also available digitally

Krupanski, Marc (2009) Racial disparity in NYPD stops-and-frisks : the Center for Constitutional Rights preliminary report on UF-250 data from 2005 through June 2008. New York, N.Y. : Center for Constitutional Rights, 2009. Special Collections HV8148 .N52 R29 2009a  also available digitally

CCRB 2001 Street stop encounter report: an analysis of CCRB complaints resulting from the New York Police Department's "stop and frisk" practices.  New York: Civilian Complaint Review Board, [2001]. Special Collections Room - HV8148 .N52 J66 2010 Also available digitally.

Please note that this report includes as appendices internal NYPD forms and procedural documents (current in 2001) related to Stop, Question and Frisk.

Jan. 15/31, 2001 "Forms Follow Function: NYPD gets serious about improving police-community relations." Law Enforcement News pp. 1, 8.

note that this article reproduces the NYPD "stop question and frisk form" on page 8.