Skip to Main Content
Lloyd Sealy Library
John Jay College of Criminal Justice

How to use Shepard's Citators: Shepardizing using Nexis Uni (formerly known as Lexis Nexis Academic)

Use Shepard's citators to track the history of a case or a law

Shepard's in Nexis Uni database

By using the the Shepard's tool in the  Nexis Uni database, the most current cases will be included in your research. as well additional information such as unpublished decisions and law review articles. For more information on the differences between using Shepard's in print and the Shepard's tool in  an online database go to 

How do I "shepardize" a case when I know the citation?

Access the  NexisUni database from the drop down menu of popular databases on the library's homepage or from the A to Z list of databases.

Retrieving a Shepard's® report by citation can be done in a variety of ways once you have the correct citation for the case.

  1. The most common method is to enter "shep:" in the search box, followed by your citation, then press ENTER or click the search button; or
  2. Enter just the citation name in the search box, then click the Shepard's Signal™ indicator next to the document name; or

  3. When you are in the full text of a case when you are in the full text  of the case, you will see the Shepard's information in the column on the far right and a link to Shepardize this document.



Shepard's Signals

The Shepard's Signal marker indicates the standing of your case as treated by other cases.

Signal Description Details
Shepred.gif Warning Negative treatment indicated. Includes the following analyses:
  • Overruled by
  • Superceded by
  • Revoked
  • Obsolete
  • Rescinded
Sheporange.gif Questioned Validity questioned by citing references. Includes the following analyses:
  • Questioned by
Shepyellow.gif Caution Possible negative treatment indicated. Includes the following analyses:
  • Limited
  • Criticized by
  • Clarified
  • Modified
  • Corrected
Shepgreen.gif Positive Positive treatment indicated.

Includes the following analyses:

  • Followed
  • Affirmed
  • Approved
Shep circled a.gif Citing References with Analysis Other cases cited the case and assigned some analysis that is not considered positive or negative. Includes the following analyses:
  • Appeal denied by
  • Writ of certiorari denied
Shep circled i.gif Citation Information References have not applied any analysis to the citation. For example the case was cited by case law or law reviews that do not warrant an analysis. Includes the analysis: