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Lloyd Sealy Library
John Jay College of Criminal Justice

Citing Sources: APA, MLA & Chicago Styles

An Overview of Common Citation Styles

APA 7 Handouts and Additional Sources

APA 7 HANDOUTS:  If your professor requests APA 6th edition, please click here for our APA Style 6th edition.  For further assistance, contact a John Jay librarian or the John Jay Writing Center.

 

 

Additional sources:  

APA Style Blog  and APA Twitter Feed (American Psychological Association)

APA 7th Style (Excelsior College Online Writing Lab)

APA 7th Style Referencing Guide, AUT Library (Auckland University of Technology):

APA Style (7th ed.), Albert S. Cook Library (Towson University):

APA Style (7th ed.), OWL (Online Writing Lab at Purdue University) 

APA 7 Manual in Print

Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th edition) 

APA 7 Paper Format

APA 7 has two paper formats--student and professional. This guide presents how to format student papers.

Consult the APA Style Blog for specifics on an APA professional paper with examples: Professional Paper (DOCX, 96KB) and Annotated Professional Paper (PDF, 3MB)

APA format dictates the style of your title page, headings and References list. Consult the APA Style Blog for how to format tables, figures and abstract if requested by your professor. Requirements for how many and what kind of sources, sections and number of pages, etc. are determined by your professor.

 

ORDER OF ARRANGEMENT:

  • title page
  • abstract (if requested)
  • text
  • references
  • footnotes
  • tables
  • figures
  • appendices

TITLE PAGE:

APA requires a title page. Students should follow the student format unless otherwise requested by their professor. (Find additional student title page example from the APA Style Blog.)

APA title page format

(Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association p. 32)

 

Title: centered, bold print, 3-4 lines from top of page. Capitalize major words.

Author's name: centered and 2 doubled space lines under title.

Author's affiliation: centered and 1 double spaced line under author's name. Include department and institution separated by comma.

Course number and name (separated by a colon) centered and 1 double spaced line under author's affiliation, as they are written on course material.

Instructor name: centered on 1 double spaced line under course information, as it is written on course material.

Assignment due date: centered on separate line under instructor's name.  

 

PAGINATION:

Title page is page number 1

Set HEADER to add page numbers in sequence in the top right hand corner of each page.

 

LINE SPACING:

Double-space all parts of an APA Style paper--abstract, text, block quotations, table and figure (numbers, titles, and notes) and reference list. See APA Style Blog for line spacing exceptions.

 

HEADINGS:

NO running title header is required for student papers:  HEADER IS PAGE NUMBER ONLY.

Short student papers may not require any headings

Headings outline different sections in your paper. Make headings concise and descriptive.  There are 5 heading levels (see APA Style Blog information on headings for more details). Use only when necessary to differentiate distinct parts of your paper. 

Your first paragraph is understood to be the introduction--the heading “Introduction” is not needed. Do not use numbers or letters in your headings. Double space headings with no added blank lines above or below.

Use title case for all headings--most words are capitalized (e.g., Beyond the Melting Pot).

 

(Format of Headings, APA Style) 

 

 

SAMPLE PAPERS (APA Style Blog):

Sample Paper (DOCX38KB )

Sample Paper with explanation (PDF, 2MB)


  •  

Why Citations?

When using outside sources or others’ ideas to strengthen an argument in your paper, you must give the author(s) credit to avoid any charges of plagiarism (see John Jay College’s policy on Academic Integrity).

APA (American Psychological Association) is one style of formatting citations for outside sources for your Reference list (list of your sources at the end of your paper) and in-text citations (references, within the body of your paper, to a source you have listed on your Reference list).

This guide provides citation examples to the most common sources.  Use the tabs on the left for help with formatting your paper, citing different types of source and creating in-text citations.

If you need more guidance, contact your instructor, a Lloyd Sealy librarian or the John Jay Writing Center.

Quoting, Paraphrasing and Summarizing

Quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing are three ways to incorporate outside sources into your paper. See In-Text Citations: 2 Ways for options in the placement of your in-text citations and the In-Text Citation Format box for proper formatting.

Quoting

Quoting is reproducing text verbatim (exactly as written) from another source.  You must include an in-text citation to direct quotes that gives credit to the author/source AND refers the reader to your References page so they may find that source and the quote you've included.

(a) Short Quotations fewer than 40 wordsIncorporate the quote into the narrative of your text by using quotation marks. Place the in-text citation in parentheses after the author's name or at the end of the quote:

According to Geppert (2019, p. 116), "it is imperative that development economists extend their research beyond purely economic factors and focus their attention on creating more inclusive, and hence more accurate, measures of development and national well-being." 

In ancient Egypt, black pigment “was the best-known form of makeup…used by people of all classes” ("Egyptian Body Decorations," 2013, p. 39).

(b) Long Quotations more than 40 words: Separate the quote by creating a double-spaced indented block without quotation marks. Indent 5 spaces from the left margin. Place the in-text citation in parentheses after the author's name or at the end of the quote:

According to Geppert:

Although this analysis has revealed that there is a statistically significant relationship between a variety of economic, political and social factors and happiness, it is important to note it is almost impossible to make a clear distinction between economic, political and social variables (2019, p. 116).

 

Jewelry was a form of body decoration ("Egyptian Body Decorations," 2013, p. 39):

Another way that Egyptians ornamented themselves was through the use of jewelry. The best-known pieces of jewelry were the highly decorated collars and pectorals (jewelry that was hung over the chest by a chain around the neck) that both men and women wore on their upper chests, under and around their necks.

 

Paraphrasing and Summarizing

Paraphrasing is using your own words to present someone else's idea(s). Summarizing is stating the essence of another's idea(s). You need an in-text citation each time you paraphrase or summarize another's idea.  The citation refers the reader to that source on your References list and may include the specific page, chapter, section, etc. of the source being discussed. Use quotation marks for original words or phrases that come directly from the author or source:

According to Zapf & Jung (2006), “criminal responsibility” can be evaluated by referring to information from the defendant’s interview, and forensic test results (p.340).

Clifford Geertz (1973) is well known for discussing ethnography as “thick description.”

 

In-Text Citations: 2 Types

When incorporating external sources in the body of your paper you must include in-text citations that gives credit to those sources. In-text citations refer the reader to the source's listing on your References list.  It, therefore, helps to complete your References page listing all your sources first.

There are two ways to incorporate your in-text citations: 

Parenthetical Citations: Using parentheses (within or at the end of a sentence) with author(s) or title, publication year, and part quoted, summarized or paraphrased without naming that work in your sentence:

Among ancient Egyptians, "kohl, a black pigment, was the best-known form of makeup" ("Egyptian Body Decorations," 2013, p. 39). 

  • Begin with author(s) OR title as listed on your References page 
    • Author: follow Author Format in box below
    • Title:
      • Shorten long titles
      • Use title case* 
      • Use italics if the title is italicized on your References list OR quotation marks if not italicized
    • Publication YEAR only
    • Part you are quoting, paraphrasing or summarizing
      • Usually page number(s)--see APA 7 Manual for citing a paragraph (para.), major heading (Introduction), entire chapter, figure or table as well as sources with no pagination
      • Use timestamp for video/audio sources
      • Use slide number for PowerPoint sources

 

Narrative Citations:  Source is NAMED within the sentence.  Some examples: 

Smith (2015) surveyed this phenomenon.

A famous survey of this phenomenon (Smith, 2015) showed that...

In 2015, Smith demonstrated that...

"White rats are the best subjects for this test," said Smith (2015, pp. 50-51).

Smith went on to explain, "Hamsters make better pets than lab rats" (2015, p.51).

(from APA Style (7th Edition, Albert S. Cook Library, Towson University)

 

* TITLE CASE: Beyond the Melting Pot.  (most words are capitalized)

   SENTENCE CASE: Beyond the melting pot.  (only first word is capitalized with the exception of proper nouns) 

In-Text Citation Format

Formating In-text Citations

See the Quoting, Paraphrasing and Summarizing: Incorporating External Sources box in this guide for how to properly incorporate outside sources within the body of your paper. See the In-Text Citations: 2 Types box in this guide for detailed information.

  1 author

Henry, W. A., III (1990, April 9). Beyond the melting pot. Time, 135, 28-31.

(Henry, 1990, p. 29) 

  2 authors

Brown, M., & Mendis, N. (2018, July 25). The separation of immigrant families: Historical anecdotes. Center for Migration Studies. https://cmsny.org/from-the-cms-archive-separation-of-families/

(Brown & Mendis, 2018, para. 7)

  3 or more      authors

Kroop, S., Mikroyannidis, A., & Wolpers, M. (Eds.). (2015). Responsive open learning environments: Outcomes of research from the ROLE project. SpringerLink. https://link.springer.com/book/10.1007%2F978-3-319-02399-1

(Kroop et al., 2015, Figure 1)

  No date

Amnesty International. (n.d.). Cuba. Retrieved April 13, 2020, from 
https://www.amnesty.org/en/countries/americas/cuba/

(Amnesty International, n.d., News)

  Multiple        pages

Ali, S. (2004). Reading radicalized bodies. In H. Thomas & J. Ahmed (Eds.), Cultural bodies:Ethnography and theory (pp. 76-97). Blackwell Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470775837

(Ali, 2004, pp. 80-83)

  Entire            work

Saunders, G. (2000). Pastoralia: Stories. Riverhead Books.

(Saunders, 2000)

  Indirect        source

Menendez, D., & Marcella, A. J. (2008). Cyber forensics: A field manual for collecting, examining, and preserving evidence of computer crimes (2nd ed.). Auerbach Publications.

RSA Security found... (as cited in Menendez and Marcella, 2008, p. 51)

   Audiovisual   material

Caged Bird Songs. (2014, September 23). Still I rise by Maya Angelou (official lyric video) [Video].YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_UFMB4i1AJo&feature=emb_title

(Caged Bird Songs, 2014, 1:19-1:25)

McNeel, R. (n.d.) New hope for fading memories: Alzheimer's disease [PowerPoint slide].
BioEd Online. http://www.bioedonline.org/slides/hot-topics/new-hope-for-fading-memories-alzheimers-disease/

(McNeel, n.d., Slide 7)

 

 

Reference List: Basic Principles

APA 7 Basic Rules

Author:

  1. Follow author Reference List: Author Format in this guide for author(s) name--lastname, initial(s). 

  2. Capitalize group author(s) such as an organization, association, corporation, government agency, etc. as a proper name.

  3. When citing an edited work as a whole, format editor name(s) same as author(s)--lastname, initial(s).  See Edited Book as a Whole in this guide.

  4. When citing part of an edited work (essay/article/chapter) the author of the part is listed first.  Editor(s) of the work as a whole is named as initial(s). lastname.  Include page number(s) for part you are citing.  See Part of an Edited Book in this guide.

  5. Include those separately credited (translators/introduction or foreword authors) with name and role in parentheses after the title as follows: (with A. A. Author, Trans.).

Edition:

  1. Include edition information (revised/update/number) after title of work. 

Publisher:

  1. List publisher name only; do not include place of publication.

  2. If author and publisher are the same, omit the publisher.

DOIs and URLs (for PRINT and ELECTRONIC sources)

  1. Include DOI (digital objective identifier) as a hyperlink if available (p: https://doi.org/xxxxxxx. See DOIs and How to Find Them in this guide for more information.

  2. Include URL only if link is stable and material is freely accessible to everyone.

  3. Do NOT include database name or database URL. 

  4. Avoid punctuation after the DOI or URL to avoid corrupting the link.

  5. If URL is neither stable nor freely accessible to everyone, treat as print source even if you read it online.

WEBSITES: 

  1. If you mention a website in your paper without quoting or paraphrasing, simply provide the website name and URL in parentheses--not necessary to list it in your References page. 
  2. Use Webpage format ONLY when no other format applies---follow other formats in this guide if your source is an eBook; online Dictionary/Encyclopedia; online JournalMagazine or Newspaper article; article from an Online News SourceSocial Media page/post; Audiovisual item, or online government report.

  3. Follow Newspaper Article format ONLY for online articles published from a newspaper website associated with a daily or weekly newspaper.

  4. Follow News Webpage (Online News Sources) format for articles from ONLINE NEWS SOURCES such as CNN, BBC, Bloomberg, Reuters or HuffPost, that are NOT associated with a daily or weekly newspaper.

Reference List: Basic Format

* List sources on separate page at end of your paper with title, References (centered in bold)

* List sources alphabetically by author (last name or group author) or title when there is no author (ignore initial articles like "A," "An," or "The")

* Double space throughout

* Follow examples for how to cite different types of sources using the format tabs on the left in this guide

* Use sentence case*--capitalize ONLY first word of title AND subtitle (word after a colon : or dash -), all other title words are lower case except for proper nouns

* Format entires with a hanging indent

 

* SENTENCE CASE: Beyond the melting pot.  (only first word is capitalized with the exception of proper nouns) 

   TITLE CASE: Beyond the Melting Pot.  (most words are capitalized)

Reference List: Author Format

Format author(s) name(s) as last name, first initial. middle initial. (if provided):

Single author: 

Schutt, R. K. 

2 authors: List both authors, separated by a comma and an ampersand (&) instead of “and:”  

Bachman, R., & Schutt, R. K.                    

3 to 20 authors: List each author up to 19 authors, separated by a comma, adding an ampersand (&) before the last author’s name:  

Kan, K. J., Beijsterveldt, C., Bartels, M., & Boomsma, D.

More than 20 authors: List first 19 authors, separated by a comma.  Use an ellipsis (...) in the place of all additional authors, ending with the final author's name directly after the ellipsis (no ampersand):

Juárez, U., Riyaziyyat, E., Wang, C., Zhang, I., Li, P., Yang, R., Kumar, B., Xu, A., Martinez, R., McIntosh, V., Ibáñez, L. M., Mäkinen, G., Virtanen, E., . . . Kovács, A. *

Group Author: An author may be an institution, association, government association, etc.  Capitalize group authors as a proper name: 
American Psychiatric Association
Division of Foodborne, Waterborne and Environmental Diseases
U.S. Census Bureau

 

*Source provided by the APA Style website 

DOIs and How to Find Them

Scholarship is becoming more available online often with an assigned DOI or "digital object identifier." A DOI is a unique alphanumeric string and persistent link to a permanent location on the internet. 

APA recommends ending each citation with a DOI if available. DOIs remains fixed over a publication's lifetime where URLs may change over time.  

Not every publication has a DOI but many databases do include them. You may also find DOIs online by viewing the publication's webpage or searching here: https://doi.crossref.org/simpleTextQuery  

 

DOIs may look like any of the following formats (“xxxxx” refers to the DOI number)

https://doi.org/xxxxx

http:/dx.doi.org/xxxxx 

doi:xxxxx or DOI:xxxxx

Whatever version you find, APA recommends using this format:

https://doi.org/xxxxx

 

Print Books

 See Reference List: Basic Principles, Reference List: Basic Format and Reference List: Author Format for additional information.

  Author, A. A. (Year). Title of book: Subtitle of book. Publisher. DOI (if available) 

  Single Author

Saunders, G. (2000). Pastoralia: Stories. Riverhead Books.

  Two Authors*

Anaya, R., & Márquez, A. (1984). Cuentos Chicanos: A short story anthology (Rev. ed.). University of New Mexico Press.

  Group Author (include DOI if available for print books)

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596

  Additional Named Authors and Reprint

Weber, M. (with Giddons, A.). (1992). The Protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism (T. Parsons, Trans.). Routledge. (Original work published 1930).

 

 *see Reference List: Author Format in this guide for 3 to 20 authors, and 21 or more authors

eBooks

See Reference List: Basic PrinciplesReference List: Basic Format and Reference List: Author Format for additional information.

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of book: Subtitle of book. Publisher. DOI (if available) or URL (if stable and freely accessible)

  eBook with DOI

Thomas, H., & Ahmed, J. (Eds.). (2004). Cultural bodies: Ethnography and theory. Blackwell Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470775837

  eBook with URL (stable and freely accessible)

Haffner-Ginger, B. (2012). California Mexican-Spanish cook book: Selected Mexican and Spanish recipeshttps://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/39586

  eBook without DOI or URL (treat as print book)

Menendez, D., & Marcella, A. J. (2008). Cyber forensics: A field manual for collecting, examining, and preserving evidence of computer crimes (2nd ed.). Auerbach Publications.

Saunders, G. (2000). Pastoralia: Stories. Riverhead Books.

 

Edited Book as a Whole

 See Reference List: Basic PrinciplesReference List: Basic Format and Reference List: Author Format for additional information. 

 Editor, A. A. (Ed.). (Year). Title of book: Subtitle of book. Publisher. DOI (if available) or URL (if stable and freely accessible)

 Two Editors (without DOI or stable and freely accessible URL)

Bowers, J. M., & Tick, J. (Eds.). (1986). Women making music: The Western art tradition, 1150-1950. University of Illinois Press.

 Three to 20 Editors*

Cullen, F., Agnew, R., & Wilcox, P. (Eds.). (2018). Criminological theory: Past to present: Essential readings (6th ed.). Oxford University Press.

 Edited eBook with DOI

Thomas, H., & Ahmed, J. (Eds.). (2004). Cultural bodies: Ethnography and theory. Blackwell Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470775837

 Edited eBook with URL (stable and freely accessible)

Kroop, S., Mikroyannidis, A., & Wolpers, M. (Eds.). (2015). Responsive open learning environments: Outcomes of research from the ROLE project. SpringerLink. https://link.springer.com/book/10.1007%2F978-3-319-02399-1

 

*see Reference List: Author Format in this guide for 21 or more authors

Part of an Edited Book (Chapters/Essays/Articles)

See Reference List: Basic PrinciplesReference List: Basic Format and Reference List: Author Format for additional information.

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of part: Subtitle of part. In Editor Name (Ed.), Title of book: Subtitle of book (pp. pages). Publisher. DOI (if available) or URL (if stable and freely accessible)

Part in Edited work (within specific edition)

Anderson, E. (2018). The code of the street. In F. Cullen, R. Agnew, & P. Wilcox (Eds.), Criminological theory: Past to present--Essential readings (6th ed., pp. 93-104). Oxford University Press.

Part in Edited work with DOI

Ali, S. (2004). Reading radicalized bodies. In H. Thomas & J. Ahmed (Eds.), Cultural bodies: Ethnography and theory (pp. 76-97). Blackwell Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470775837

Part in Edited work with URL (stable and freely accessible)

Nussbaumer, A., Dahn, I., Kroop, S., Mikroyannidis, A., & Albert, D. (2015). Supporting self-regulated learning. In S. Kroop, A. Mikroyannidis & M. Wolpers (Eds.), Responsive open learning environments: Outcomes of research from the ROLE project (pp. 17 48). SpringerLink. https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-02399-1_2

 

*Compare these entries with their Edited Book as a Whole counterpart above.*

Dictionaries/Encyclopedias (including Wikipedia)

See Reference List: Basic PrinciplesReference List: Basic Format and Reference List: Author Format for additional information.

PRINT, DATABASE or without DOI/URL (stable and freely accessible):

Author, A. A. (Date). Title of entry. In Title of book: Subtitle of book (Edition, Vol., p. page or pp. pages). Publisher (if not author). 

Named Author (with volume number)

Collins, E. F. (2012). Tattooing and piercing. In M. Juergensmeyer & W. C. Roof (Eds.), Encyclopedia of global religion (Vol. 2, pp. 1265-1267). SAGE Reference. 

Publisher as Author (omit publisher name, with edition)

Merriam-Webster. (1997). Goat. In Merriam Webster’s collegiate dictionary (10th ed., pp. 499-500). 

Individually Titled Volume

St. George, J., & Canavan, F. P. (2005). Crisis Intervention. In L. E. Sullivan & M. S. Rosen (Eds.), Encyclopedia of law enforcement: Vol. 1. State and local (pp. 122-125). SAGE Reference.

 

ONLINE Exact date:

Author, A. A. (Date). Title of entry. In Title of book or Website name (Edition, Vol.). Publisher (if not author). DOI (if available) OR URL (if stable and freely accessible)

ONLINE NO DATE:

Author, A. A. (n.d.). Title of entry. In Title of book or Website name (Edition, Vol.). Publisher (if not author). Retrieved date, from URL (if stable and freely accessible)*

Named Author (with date and edition)

Speaks, J. (2019). Theories of meaning. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (Winter 2019 ed).  Stanford University. https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2019/entries/meaning/

Publisher as Author (omit publisher name, no date)

American Psychological Association. (n.d.). Phobic avoidance. In APA dictionary of psychology. Retrieved January 18, 2020, from https://dictionary.apa.org/phobic-avoidance

Title Entry (no author, no date)

Force majeure. (n.d.). In Thesaurus.com. Retrieved April 9, 2020, from https://www.thesaurus.com/browse/force%20majeure?s=t

Wikipedia Title Entry for Archived Page **

Folk music. (2020, February 16). In Wikipediahttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Folk_music

 

*If there is no date, use n.d. for “no date” and add “Retrieved” followed by your date of access before the URL.

**Use a permanent (archived) page with date and URL whenever possible. For Wikipedia, click "View History” for archived pages.

 

Journal Articles

See Reference List: Basic PrinciplesReference List: Basic Format and Reference List: Author Format for additional information.

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of article: Subtitle of article. Title of Journal, Vol. Number(Issue Number), Pages. DOI (if available) or URL (if stable and freely accessible)

Print Article or Article from Database or without DOI or URL

Lawson, N. (2016). It’s a man’s prison: How the traditional incarceration model fails female offenders in Kansas. Kansas Journal of Law & Public Policy, 25(2), 273–288.

Article with DOI (print or electronic)

Abraham, M., Bahr, S., & Trappmann, M. (2019, June 25). Gender differences in willingness to move for interregional job offers. Demographic Research, 40, 1537-1602. https://doi.org/10.4054/DemRes.2019.40.53

Article with URL (no DOI and only stable and freely accessible URL)

Geppert, K. (2019). Does money buy happiness? A cross-country look at the relationship between income and happiness. Issues in Political Economy, 28(2), 102–121. https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Does-money-buy-happiness-A-cross-country-look-at-Geppert/d1e15e62f5d4457c769d96ae5c0a11bc473ef464

Article with 3 to 20 authors (with DOI)

Philips, L., Allen, R., Bull, R., Hering, A.Kliegel, M., & Channon, S. (2015). Older adults have difficulty in decoding sarcasm. Developmental Psychology, 51(12), 1840-1852. https://doi.org/10.1037/dev0000063

Article with 21 or more authors (with DOI)

Pegion, K., Kirtman, B. P., Becker, E., Collins, D. C., LaJoie, E., Burgman, R., Bell, R., DelSole, R., Min, D., Zhu, Y., Li, W., Sinsky, E., Guan, H., Gottschalck, J., Metzger, E. J., Barton, N. P., Achuthavarier, D., Marshak, J., Koster, R., . . .  Kim, H. (2019). The subseasonal experiment (SubX): A multimodel subseasonal prediction experiment. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 100(10), 2043-2061. https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-18-0270.1*

 

*source provided by Owl Purdue Online Writing Lab

Magazine Articles

See Reference List: Basic PrinciplesReference List: Basic Format and Reference List: Author Format for additional information.

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Article title. Magazine Title, Vol. Number(Issue Number), Pages. URL (if stable and freely accessible) 

Article in Print, from Database or without DOI or URL (stable and freely accessible)

Shell, E. R. (2019). Obesity on the brain. Scientific American, 321(4), 38–45.

Article with DOI (print or electronic)

Kandel, E. R., & Squire, L. R. (2000, November 10). Neuroscience: Breaking down scientific barriers. Science, 290(5494), 1113-1120. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.290.5494.1113

Online Article without Page Number(s)* (with stable and freely accessible URL)

Gregory, S. (2020, March 26). ‘Without empathy, nothing works.’ Chef Jose Andres wants to feed the world through the pandemic. Time, 195(12). https://time.com/5810564/without-empathy-nothing-works-chef-jose-andres-wants-to-feed-the-world-through-the-pandemic/

Online Article without Volume and Issue Number *(with stable and freely accessible URL)

Austen, B. (2018, June 21). Peace officers. New Republic. https://newrepublic.com/article/148854/peace-officers

 

  *When missing volume, issue and/or page number(s) simply omit that piece of information. 

Newspaper Articles

IMPORTANT: ONLY articles published in print newspapers or from a newspaper website associated with a daily or weekly newspaper. Follow News Webpage format in this guide for articles from ONLINE NEWS SOURCES such as CNN, BBC, Bloomberg, Reuters or HuffPost, that is, news websites NOT associated with a daily or weekly newspaper.

See Reference List: Basic PrinciplesReference List: Basic Format and Reference List: Author Format for additional information.

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Article title. Newspaper Title, section/page(s). URL (if stable and freely accessible)

Article in Print, from Database OR no DOI or URL (stable and freely accessible)

Johnson, C. Y. (2019, October 20). 'Use it or lose it'? Study links excessive brain activity to shortened life. The Washington Post, A3.

Printz, L. (2012, September 30). Ready to plug in? Knowledge is power: Plenty to ponder if you plan to own electric car. Chicago Tribune.*

Article with URL (stable and freely accessible)

Hilts, P. J. (1999, February 16). In forecasting their emotions, most people flunk out. The New York Times, F2. https://www.nytimes.com/1999/02/16/science/in-forecasting-their-emotions-most-people-flunk-out.html

Article with No Author from Database or without URL (stable and freely accessible)

Voice of the people: Close Rikers, rethink mental health [Editorial]. (2019, February 18). New York Daily News, 20.

 

*If section and/or page number(s) information is missing, omit that piece of information

News Webpage (Online News Sources)

IMPORTANT: ONLY online news websites such as BBC, MSNBC, Salon or HuffPost not associated with a published newspaper. Use the Newspaper Articles format in this guide for websites that are online versions of daily or weekly newspapers. 

See Reference List: Basic PrinciplesReference List: Basic Format and Reference List: Author Format for additional information. 

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). News article title. News Website Name. URL (if stable and accessible)

Named Author

Heilweil, R. (2020, April 8). 6 things to know about telehealth: Due to Covid-19, video chats with doctors are becoming mainstream. Here’s how it all works. Vox. https://www.vox.com/recode/2020/4/8/21212432/telemedicine-how-to-video-chat-doctors

Oliver, T. (2020, April 5). Why overcoming racism is essential for humanity’s survival. BBC. https://www.bbc.com/future/article/20200403-how-to-overcome-racism-and-tribalism

No Author (Publisher/Organization as Author—omit Website Name)

BBC. (2016, May 17). How much of your body is your own? http://www.bbc.com/earth/story/the-making-of-me-and-you

Group Author (Publisher/Organization as Author different from Website Name)

The Associated Press. (2016, February 22). Judge bans enforcement of Biden’s 100-day deportation pause. NBC News. https://www.nbcnews.com/politics/immigration/judge-bans-enforcement-biden-s-100-day-deportation-pause-n1258707

 

Webpages

IMPORTANT: When mentioning a website in your paper without quoting or paraphrasing from it, simply provide the name of that website and add its URL in parentheses--you do not need to list it in your References page. 

IMPORTANT: Use the webpage format below only if no other format applies---follow the other formats listed in this guide if your source is an online book; online dictionary/encyclopedia article such as Wikipedia; online journal, magazine or newspaper article; article from an online news source; social media page/post; audiovisual item, or online government report.

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Webpage title: Webpage subtitle. Website Name. URL (if stable and freely accessible)

 

Author, A. A. (n.d.). Webpage title: Webpage subtitle. Website Name. Retrieved Date, from URL (if stable and freely accessible)

Amnesty International. (n.d.). Cuba. Retrieved April 13, 2020, from https://www.amnesty.org/en/countries/americas/cuba/

 

Bloomberg. (2020, April 7). SBA computers crash in fresh blow to companies seeking virus aidhttps://www.americanbanker.com/articles/sba-computers-crash-in-fresh-blow-to-companies-seeking-virus-aid 

 

Brown, M., & Mendis, N. (2018, July 25). The separation of immigrant families: Historical anecdotes. Center for Migration Studies. http://cmsny.org/from-the-cms-archive-separation-of-families/

 

Division of Foodborne, Waterborne and Environmental Diseases. (2019, June 13). Food safety: A changing landscape in a global world. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/foodsafety/features/worldfoodsafetyday.html

 

U.S. Census Bureau. (n.d.). U.S. and world population clock. U.S. Department of Commerce. Retrieved January 9, 2020, from https://www.census.gov/popclock/*

 

  • Read the “About Us” section of the website for author and website name information---it may be a person, institution, association, organization, government agency, etc. 
  • If there is no author listed for the specific page you are viewing, list the organization/institution/government agency/association you find in the "About Us" section of the webpage as the author.
  • Follow the author format in this guide for author(s) name. 
  • Capitalize group authors as a proper name.
  • If the author and website name are the same, omit the website name in the reference (see the American Banker and Amnesty International examples above).
  • Some websites have content that is updated and/or changes over time (Google Maps, census data, etc.). Use an archived (permanent) page with its date and URL whenever possible.
  • If there is no a date on the specific page you are citing or you cannot find an archived (permanent) page/URL, use n.d. for “no date” and add “Retrieved” with your date of access before the URL (see Amnesty International and U.S. Census examples).

 

*source provided by the APA Style website

Social Media

Use this format when you are citing content originally published on a social media site. For sources you find through a particular social media post (e.g. link to an article or video) that you wish to include in your paper, cite that original source directly.

This social media format has two formats.  

1. Social media page, profile or account:

  • Provide the title of the page you are citing in italics (e.g. Home, Profile, Tweets, Media, Likes, Photos, etc.).
  • Add a descriptive notation in brackets after the title (e.g. [Facebook page] or [Twitter profile]).
  • Because social media pages change over time (e.g. homepages, timelines, etc.), use the notation "n.d." for no date and  add “Retrieved” with your date of access before the URL.

2. Social media post or content published on a social media platform:

  • For a particular post, tweet, photograph, etc. published on a social media site, provide the first 20 words of text as the title.
  • Add a notation for the post type in square brackets after the content text (e.g. [Status update], [Facebook post], [Photograph], [Video], etc.).
  • Do not alter nonstandard or erroneous spellings or capitalization---include the text as it is written.
  • Include hashtags, links and emojis, counting them as one word of the text. If you are not able to include an emoji, provide its name or description in square brackets (e.g. [winking face]). Find emoji names and descriptions here: https://unicode.org/emoji/charts/emoji-list.html
  • If a post includes audiovisual materials such as a video or image add its description in square brackets after the text (e.g. [Photograph]).  
  • Use the exact date of the posts when available. 

 

FACEBOOK:

Facebook Page: 

Author, A. A. or Group Name. (n.d.). Page Title [Facebook page]. Facebook. Retrieved date, from URL

American Library Association. (n.d.). Home [Facebook page]. Facebook. Retrieved April 14, 2020, from https://www.facebook.com/AmericanLibraryAssociation/

 

John Jay College Library. (n.d.)Photos [Facebook page]. Retrieved April 16, 2020, from https://www.facebook.com/pg/johnjaylibrary/photos/?ref=page_internal

 

Official Jackson Browne. (n.d.). Videos [Facebook page]. Facebook. Retrieved April 15, 2020, from https://www.facebook.com/pg/OfficialJacksonBrowne/videos/?ref=page_internal

 

Facebook Post:

Author, A. A. or Group Name. (Date). Content of post up to first 20 words [Description of image/hashtag/link if included][Post type]. Facebook. URL

 

ITS at Syracuse University.  (2020, April 13). When in doubt, don’t click: A phishing scam posing as an email about MySlice is targeting the #SyracuseU community [Image attached] [Facebook post]. Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/ SyracuseITS/photos/a.183464591697636/3372994842744579/?type=3&theater

 

John Jay College Library. (2020, April 2). Did you know that #johnjaylibrary #digitalcollections has a collection of images from 1940-1945 of #mugshots #rapsheets & #criminalinvesitgation #documents? [Images attached] [Facebook post]. Facebook.

         https://www.facebook.com/pg/johnjaylibrary/posts/?ref=page_internal

 

Official Jackson Browne. (2020, February 9) Photo from “A Human Touch” video, with @lesliemendelson. The song was written by Leslie, Steve McEwan and @jackson.browne.official for the [Image attached] [Photograph]. Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/OfficialJacksonBrowne/photos/a.1015022333865708 /10157241626597087/?type=3&theater

 

TWITTER:

Twitter Profile: 

Author, A. A. or Group Name [@username]. (n.d.). Twitter tab [Twitter profile]. Twitter. Retrieved date, URL

APA Style [@APA_Style]. (n.d.). Tweets [Twitter profile]. Twitter. Retrieved January 15, 2020, from https://twitter.com/APA_Style *

 

Brooklyn Museum [@brooklynmuseum]. (n.d.). Tweets [Twitter profile]. Twitter. Retrieved April 24, 2020, from https://twitter.com/brooklynmuseum 

 

Lloyd Sealy Library [@JohnJayLibrary]. (n.d.). Likes [Twitter profile]. Twitter. Retrieved April 16, 2020, from https://twitter.com/JohnJayLibrary/likes

 

 

Tweet: 

Author, A. A. or Group Name [@username]. (Date). Content of tweet up to first 20 words [Description of image/hashtag/link if included] [Tweet]. Twitter. URL


APA Databases [@APA_Databases]. (2019, September 5). Help students avoid plagiarism and researchers navigate the publication process. More details available in the 7th edition @APA_Style table [Image attached] [Tweet]. Twitter.  https://twitter.com/APA_Databases/status/1169644365452578823 *

 

New York Times Arts [@nytimesarts]. (2019, February 1). Frida Kahlo and Diego Rivera’s Blue House in Mexico City travels to the United States for the first time. Unearthed [Thumbnail with link attached] [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/nytimesarts/status/1091546540215283712

 

NPR's Latino USA [@LatinoUSA]. (2019, February 11). A first-of-its-kind exhibit opened at the Brooklyn Museum gives fans of iconic artist Frida Kahlo a chance. [Thumbnail with link attached] [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/LatinoUSA/status/1095087584609517568

 

INSTAGRAM:

PROFILE/HIGHLIGHT

Author, A. A. or Group Name [@username]. (n.d.). Highlight or Instagram tab [Highlight or Instagram profile]. Instagram. Retrieved date, from URL

Food Network [@foodnetwork]. (n.d.). Posts [Instagram profile]. Instagram. Retrieved April 16, 2020, from https://www.instagram.com/foodnetwork/?hl=en

 

National Geographic [@natgeo]. (n.d.). IGTV [Instagram profile]. Instagram. Retrieved December 8, 2019, from https://www.instagram.com/natgeo/channel/*

 

PHOTO/VIDEO

Author, A. A. or Group Name [@username]. (Date). Content text [Description of image/hastag/link if included]. [Photograph(s)/Video(s)]. Instagram. URL

 

BBC [@bbc]. (2020, January 12). Skywatchers have been treated to the first full moon of 2020-known as a “wolf moon”-at the same time as a [Photograph]. Instagram. https://www.instagram.com/p/B7OkWqbBwcf/**

 

Food Network [@foodnetwork]. (2020, April 10). Once you stuff your chocolate chip cookies with an ooey gooey hazelnut filling, you'll never be the same again! Watch [Photograph]. Instagram. https://www.instagram.com/p/B-xq5pQlVUY/

 

The New York Public Library [@nypl]. (2020, January 4). Happy #NationalTriviaDay! Patience and Fortitude are the beloved lions located outside of our 42nd Street location. These timeless lions have [Photograph]. Instagram. https://www.instagram.com/p/B66XsTilYZG/

 

*source provided by the APA Style website

**source provided by Purdue Owl Writing Lab

Audiovisual Materials

This format covers audiovisual, audio and visual material. APA distinguishes between works that stand alone (e.g. television series, music album, YouTube video, etc.) and works that are part of a whole (e.g. episode in a series, song from a music album, etc.). The author is the creator(s) of the work except for YouTube and other streaming videos where the uploader (account holder) is credited as the author in order to easily access the source. Look for some of these common author categories:

Film (Director)
Television Series (Executive Producer)
Television Episode (Writer and/or Director)
YouTube or other Streaming Video (Uploader)
TED Talk (Speaker if from TED website/Uploader if from YouTube)
Podcast (Host)
Webinar (Speaker/Instructor)
Music Album or Song (Recording Artist or Composer)
Artwork (Photographer, Painter, Illustrator, etc.)
Conference/Presentation (Presenter)
PowerPoint (Creator)

 

WORK AS A WHOLE (STAND ALONE):

  • Work may have more than one author and/or authors in distinct roles.
  • Author may be a group. Capitalize as a proper name.
  • Date may be a range of time (e.g. 2001-2003 or 2017-present).
  • Italicize title of work.
  • Add description in brackets (e.g. [Video], [Film], [Painting], [Podcast], [Song], etc.) after title. 
  • Publisher could be a production company, record label, museum, university department, etc.
  • There may be more than one production company. Include up to 20 production companies separated by a semicolon.
  • Include the URL if work is online, stable and freely accessible to everyone. 

PART OF A WHOLE:

  • Work may have more than one author and/or authors in distinct roles.
  • ​Author may be a group. Capitalize as a proper name.
  • Italicize title of whole NOT the part you are citing.
  • Add description in brackets (e.g. [Video], [Painting], [Podcast], [Song], etc.) after title of the part.  
  • Publisher could be a production company, record label, museum, university department, etc. 
  • There may be more than one production company. Include up to 20 production companies separated by a semicolon. 
  • Include the URL if work is online, stable and freely accessible to everyone. 

 

FILM/MOVIE (not necessary to indicate how you viewed the item):

Director, A. A. (Director). (Date). Title of film [Film]. Production Company/Companies.

 

Dahl, R. (Writer), & Stuart, M. (Director). (1971). Willy Wonka and the chocolate factory [Film]. Wolper Pictures; The Quaker Oats Company.

 

Fleming, V. (Director). (1939). Gone with the wind [Film]. Selznick International Pictures; Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer.*

 

YouTube or STREAMING VIDEO:

Uploader/Account Holder, U. U. (Date of publication). Title of video [Video]. Website host. URL (if available, stable and freely accessible)

 

Caged Bird Songs. (2014, September 23). Still I rise by Maya Angelou (official lyric video) [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_UFMB4i1AJo&feature=emb_title

 

Chance The Rapper. (2019, July 26). All day long [Video]https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V846b5ETp-c

 

John Jay College. (2019, October 1). Get to know the Prisoner Reentry Institute with Ann Jacobs [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-3RD1n8j-gw

 

TV SERIES:

Producer, A.A. (Producer(s)/Executive Producer(s)). (Date range). Title of TV series [TV series]. Production Company; Companies. 

 

Gorden, H., & Gansa, A. (Executive Producers). (2011-2020). Homeland [TV series]. Fox 21; Fox Television Studios.

 

Serling, R. (Executive Producer). (1959–1964). The twilight zone [TV series]. Cayuga Productions; CBS Productions.*

 

TV EPISODE:

Writer, A.A. (Writer), & Director, A.A. (Director). (Original Air Date). Title of episode (Season No., Episode No.) [TV series episode]. In A.A. Producer (Executive Producer), Title of TV series. Production Company; Companies. 

 

Serling, R., Bixby, J., (Writers), & Sheldon, J. (Director). (1961, November 3). It's a good life (Season 3, Episode 8) [TV series episode]. In R. Serling (Executive Producer), The twilight zone. Cayuga Productions; CBS Productions.

 

Stiehm, M. (Writer), & Cuesta, M. (Director). (2011, November 13). The weekend (Season 1, Episode 7) [TV series episode]. In H. Gorden & A. Gansa (Executive Producers), Homeland. Fox 21; Fox Television Studios.

 

TED TALK: Author is the speaker if video is directly from TED website. Author is the uploader/account holder if the video is from YouTube--add speakers' name in the tile of the talk.

Speaker, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of talk [Video]. TED Conferences. URL

Uploader, U. U. (Year, Month Day). Speaker: Title of talk [Video]. YouTube. URL

 

Foss, A. (2016, February). A prosecutor’s vision for a better justice system [Video]. TED Conferences.  https://www.ted.com/talks/ adam_foss_a_prosecutor_s_vision_for_a_better_justice_system

 

TEDx Talks. (2018, May 23). Michiel Vandeweert: Life's short, make the most of it [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lFZvLeMbJ_U

 

PODCAST: Format differs for a podcast series and a podcast episode within a series.

Host, H. H. (Host). (Date range). Title of podcast series [Audio podcast]. Production company. URL (if accessed online)

 

Vedantam, S. (2015-present). Hidden brain. [Audio podcast]. NPR. https://www.npr.org/podcasts/510308/hidden-brain 

 

Host, H. H. (Host). (Date). Title of podcast episode (Episode number if available) [Audio podcast episode]. In Title of podcast series. Production Company. URL (if accessed online)

 

Vedantam, S., Penman, M., & Boyle, T. (2020, February 17). Liar, liar, liar [Audio podcast episode]. In Hidden brain. NPR. https://www.npr.org/2020/02/13/805808486/liar-liar-liar 

 

ARTWORK (Painting, photograph, illustration, infographic, etc.): Format differs for artwork associated with a museum or gallery (part of a whole) and art that stands on its own, not associated with a museum or gallery. Do not use database name or database URL.

Artist, A. A. (Date). Title of work [Medium]. Museum Name, Museum Location. URL (if viewed online) 

 

Klimt, G. (1907). Adele Bloch-Bauer I [Painting]. Neue Gallery, New York, NY, United States. https://www.neuegalerie.org/content/adele-bloch-bauer-i

 

Mitchell, T. (2019). Untitled [Group hula hoop] [Photograph]. International Center of Photography, New York, NY, United States. https://www.icp.org/exhibitions/tyler-mitchell-i-can-make-you-feel-good

 

Artist, A. A. (Date). Title of work [Medium]. Source. URL (if viewed online) 

 

Day, B. (2014, August 20). Don't shoot. [Political cartoon]. Cale Cartoons. http://caglecartoons.com/sku/152568/

 

The Sentencing Project. (2001). Lifetime likelihood of imprisonment for U.S. residents born in 2001 [Infographic]. https://www.sentencingproject.org/wpcontent/uploads/2015/10/lifetime-likelihood-of-imprisonment-by-race.png

 

MUSIC: Format differs between a whole (e.g. album or musical score) and one song of a whole.

Artist, A. A. (year). Title of whole [Description]. Recording Label.

 

The Beatles. (1968). The white album [Album]. Apple. 

 

Haydn, F. J. (2001). The creation [Musical score]. Dover Publications. (Original work published 1798).*

 

Artist, A. A. (year). Title of song [Song]. On Title of whole. Recording Label.

 

​The Beatles. (1968). Blackbird [Song]. On The white album. Apple.

 

Los Angeles Percussion Quartet. (2017). Fear release [Song]. On Beyond. Sono Luminus.

 

WEBINAR (archived and available online):

Author, A. A. (Date). Title of webinar [Webinar]. Producer. URL

 

American Psychological Association. (2019, October 24). What’s new in APA style—Inside the seventh edition of the Publication Manual of the APA. American Psychological Association. https://apastyle.apa.org/instructional-aids/tutorials-webinars

 

POWERPOINT or GOOGLE SLIDES/CLASS LECTURE NOTES:

Author, A. A. (Date). Title of slides or lecture [Description]. Source or Platform. URL (use login page for sources requiring a login)

 

Mack, R., & Spake, G. (2018). Citing open source images and formatting references for presentations [PowerPoint slides]. Canvas@FNU. https://fnu.onelogin.com/login*

 

McNeel, R. (n.d.) New hope for fading memories: Alzheimer's disease 

         [PowerPoint slide]​. BioEd Online. http://www.bioedonline.org/slides/hot-topics/new-hope-for-fading-memories-alzheimers-disease/

 

*source provided by the APA Style website

Dissertations and Theses

Dissertations and theses may be used as a source whether published or unpublished.  Unpublished dissertations and theses are most likely found in print at the author's institution. Published dissertations and theses may be found in databases (ProQuest Dissertations and Theses GlobalEBSCO Open Dissertations, PQDT Open), institutional repositories and archives, and personal websites. 

Author, A. A. (Date). Title of dissertation or thesis: Subtitle of dissertation or thesis

[Unpublished doctoral dissertation/master's thesis]. Institution Name.

 

Author, A. A. (Date). Title of dissertation or thesis: Subtitle of dissertation or thesis

(Publication No. xxxxxx) [Description, Institution Name]. Source.

URL (if stable and freely available to all)

 

Libretti, R. (2018). Differences in psychopathy and associated traits by police officer rank (Publication No. 13806004) [Doctoral dissertation, City University of New York, John Jay College of Criminal Justice]. ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global.

Rinke, C. (2012). Selective multivariate applications in forensic science [Doctoral dissertation, University of Central Florida]. EBSCO OpenDissertations. https://stars.library.ucf.edu/etd/2296 

Zambrano-Vazquez, L. (2016). The interaction of state and trait worry on response monitoring in those with worry and obsessive-compulsive symptoms [Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona]. UA Campus Repository. https://repository.arizona.edu/handle/10150/620615*

Zhou, X. (2018). Leggings are the new denim: An investigation of consumer activewear experience (Publication No. 10840578) [Doctoral dissertation, Temple University]. PQDT Open. https://pqdtopen.proquest.com/pubnum/10840578.html

 

  • Follow author format in this guide.
  • Include publication number for published works after title, if available.
  • Include “Doctoral dissertation” or “Master’s thesis” followed by institution awarding the degree in square brackets, e.g. [Doctoral dissertation, John Jay College of Criminal Justice] after the title for published works.
  • Include "Unpublished dissertation" or "Unpublished master's thesis" in square brackets after the title for unpublished works.
  • Use this format for other types of theses, as well, adding a description, e.g., [Undergraduate honors thesis, John Jay College of Criminal Justice]. 
  • Source for published works is database, repository, archive or personal website. Source for unpublished works is the institution awarding the degree. 
  • Include a URL only if stable and material is freely available to all.
  • If source (database, repository or archive) requires a login, end with source.
  • Follow APA in-text citation rules outlined in this guide.

 

*source from Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th edition.

 

Government Reports

Author, A. A. (Date). Title of report: Subtitle of report (Report No. if available). Publisher Name. URL (if stable and freely available to all)

 

National Cancer Institute. (2019). Taking time: Support for people with cancer (NIH Publication No. 18-2059). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health. https://www.cancer.gov/publications/patient-education/takingtime.pdf* 

New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. (2019). Health of older adults in New York City

https://www1.nyc.gov/assets/doh/downloads/pdf/episrv/2019-older-adult-health.pdf

Rantala, R. R. (2004, March 1). Cybercrime against businesses: Pilot test results, 2001 computer security survey (NCJ 200639). Bureau of Justice Statistics.

 http://www.bjs.gov/index.cfm?ty=pbdetail&iid=770

 

 

  • Author of a government report may be a government agency/department or one or more individual(s).
  • When the group author includes multiple layers of agencies or departments, use the most specific agency listed as author and parent agency as publisher in the citation.
  • If the group author and publisher/organization are the same, do not repeat as the publisher in the citation.

 

*source provided by the APA Style website

Legal Sources

The American Psychological Association recommends consulting The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation (the standard of legal citation style) or the Cornell Law School's Legal Information Institute  (https://www.law.cornell.edu/citation/​) to verify that your legal citations provide all necessary information and reflect the current state of legal authority. Find print copies of the The Bluebook in the Lloyd Sealy Library at the 2nd floor Reference Desk (KF245 .B58).

Legal citations are arranged alphabetically by first significant word or abbreviation in your References page.

URLs are not required for legal materials, however their inclusion may aid in retrieval for the reader. If included, place after the year in the References page citation.

The following examples and abbreviation chart below come from The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th edition. Consult Chapter 11 (Legal References) of the APA Manual (7th edition) for more information.

 

Federal Court Decisions:
U.S. Supreme Court--cases are published in the United States Reports, abbreviated as “U.S.” in References citation.

 

References page: Name v. Name, Volume U.S. Page (Year). 

Parenthetical citation: (Name v. Name, Year)

Narrative citation: Name v. Name (Year)

 

References page: Brown v. Board of Education, 347 U.S. 483 (1954). 

Parenthetical citation: (Brown v. Board of Education, 1954)

Narrative citation: Brown v. Board of Education (1954)

 

 

References page: Obergefell v. Hodges, 576 U.S___(2015).

Parenthetical citation: (Obergefell v. Hodges, 2015)

Narrative citation: Obergefell v. Hodges (2015)

 

*include three underscores for page number for cases after 2012 published without page numbers

 

U.S. Circuit Court--U.S. Circuit Court decisions are published in the Federal Reporter, abbreviated as "F.2d" or "F.3d." in References citation.

References page: Name v. Name, Volume F. [or F.2d, F.3d] Page (Court Year). 

Parenthetical citation(Name v. Name, Year)

Narrative citationName v. Name (Year)

 

References pageDaubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc., 951 F.2d 1128 (9th Cir. 1991). 

Parenthetical citation: (Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc., 1991)

Narrative citationDaubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (1991)

 

U.S. District Court--U.S. District Court decisions are published in the Federal Supplements, abbreviated as

"F. Supp." in References citation.


References page: Name v. Name, Volume F. Supp. Page (Court Year). 

Parenthetical citation: (Name v. Name, Year)

Narrative citation: Name v. Name (Year)

 

References page: Burriola v. Greater Toledo YMCA, 133 F. Supp. 2d 1034 (N.D. Ohio 2001). 

Parenthetical citation:  (Burriola v. Greater Toledo YMCA, 2001)

Narrative citation: Burriola v. Greater Toledo YMCA (2001)

 

 

U.S. State Court Decisions--find abbreviations for state reporters in the Bluebook.

 

References page: Name v. Name, Volume Reporter Page (Court Year).
Parenthetical citation: (Name v. Name, Year)
Narrative citation: Name v. Name (Year)

References page: Tarasoff v. Regents of the University of California, 17 Cal.3d 425, 131 Cal. Rptr. 14,

551 P.2d 334 (1976). 

Parenthetical citation:  (Tarasoff v. Regents of the University of California, 1976)
Narrative citation: Tarasoff v. Regents of the University of California (1976)

 

Federal and State Statutes:

A statute is a law or act passed by a legislative body. There are federal and state statutes. Federal statutes are published in the United States Code (U.S.C.). State statutes are published in state code publications. Both federal and state codes are divided into sections called titles. The format for citing a state statute generally follows that of a federal statute. Consult the Bluebook or another legal resource to verify the format for a particular state. Follow the Bluebook for abbreviations and symbols used in state statute sources. URLs are not required, however, they may aid in retrieval.

Statutes:  

References page: Name of Act, Title Source § Section Number (Year).
Parenthetical citation: (Name of Act, Year) 
Narrative citation: Name of Act (Year)

If a statute is codified in a single section or range of sections it is not necessary to included the public law number:

Americans With Disabilities Act of 1990 
References page: Americans With Disabilities Act of 1990, 42 U.S.C. § 12101 et seq. (1990). 
Parenthetical citation: (Americans With Disabilities Act, 1990) 
Narrative citation: Americans With Disabilities Act (1990)


Every Student Succeeds Act of 2015
References page: Every Student Succeeds Act, 20 U.S.C. § 6301 (2015). 
Parenthetical citation: (Every Student Succeeds Act, 2015) 
Narrative citation: Every Student Succeeds Act (2015)

 

Add the public law number to the References page citation when an act is codified in scattered sections or before it is codified:

Federal statute, Civil Rights Act of 1964
References page: Civil Rights Act of 1964, Pub. L. No. 88-352, 78 Stat. 241 (1964).  
Parenthetical citation: (Civil Rights Act, 1964)
Narrative citation: Civil Rights Act (1964)

 

Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act of 2009 
References page: Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act of 2009, Pub. L. No. 111-2, 123 Stat. 5 (2009). 
Parenthetical citation: (Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act, 2009) 
Narrative citation: Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act (2009)

 

Florida Mental Health Act
References pageFlorida Mental Health Act, Fla. Stat. § 394 (1971 & rev. 2009).
Parenthetical citation(Florida Mental Health Act, 1971/2009) 
Narrative citationFlorida Mental Health Act (1971/2009)

 

Bills and Resolutions:

This section refers to citing unenacted bills and resolutions (have not passed both houses of Congress) OR an enacted bill or resolution that has not been signed into law. Bills and resolutions that have been passed by both houses of Congress and signed by the president become law and should be cited as statutes (see above). Precede bill or resolution number by “H.R.” for House of Representatives or “S.” for Senate to indicate where the bill/resolution originated. Enacted resolutions are reported in the Congressional Record, abbreviated “Cong. Rec.” Include a URL if available.
 

Unenacted federal bill/resolution: (not yet passed in both houses)

Unenacted bill: Title [if relevant], H.R. or S. bill number, xxx Cong. (Year). 
Unenacted resolution: Title [if relevant], H.R. or S. Res. resolution number, xxx Cong. (Year).

References page: Mental Health on Campus Improvement Act, H.R. 1100, 113th Cong. (2013). 
Parenthetical citation: (Mental Health on Campus Improvement Act, 2013) 
Narrative citation: Mental Health on Campus Improvement Act (2013) 


Enacted federal resolution: (passed in both houses but not signed into law)


Senate: S. Res. xxx, xxx Cong., Volume Cong. Rec. Page (Year) (enacted). 
House of Representatives: H.R. Res. xxx, xxx Cong., Volume Cong. Rec. Page (Year) (enacted). 

References page: S. Res. 438, 114th Cong., 162 Cong. Rec. 2394 (2016) (enacted). 
Parenthetical citation: (S. Resolution 438, 2016) 
Narrative citation: Senate Resolution 438 (2016) 

 

Federal Regulations:

Format for rules and regulations and executive orders.  Include the URL of regulation if available online.

Federal regulation (codified)--regulations are published in the Code of Federal Regulations, abbreviated as "C.F.R." in the citation. Include the title or number of the regulation, CFR volume number, section number, and year regulation was codified.

Title or Number, Volume C.F.R. § xxx (Year). 
References page: Protection of Human Subjects, 45 C.F.R. § 46 (2009). https://www.hhs.gov/ohrp/sites/default/files/ohrp/policy/ohrpregulations.pdf
Parenthetical citation: (Protection of Human Subjects, 2009) 
Narrative citation: Protection of Human Subjects (2009) 

 

Federal regulation (not yet codified): Regulations not yet codified are published in the Federal Register, abbreviated as "F.R." in the citation. Provide the date of proposal. Include section of the Code of Federal Regulations where rule will be codified.

Title or Number, Volume F.R. Page (proposed Month Day, Year) (to be codified at

Volume C.F.R. § xxx). 

References pageDefining and Delimiting the Exemptions for Executive, Administrative, Professional,

Outside Sales and Computer Employees, 81 F.R. 32391 (proposed May 23, 2016)

(to be codified at 29 C.F.R. § 541).

Parenthetical citation: (Defining and Delimiting, 2016) 

Narrative citationDefining and Delimiting (2016) 

 

Executive Orders:

Executive order:  Exec. Order No. xxxxx, 3 C.F.R. Page (Year). 

References page: Exec. Order No. 13,676, 3 C.F.R. 294 (2014). 
Parenthetical citation: (Exec. Order No. 13,676, 2014) 
Narrative citation: Executive Order No. 13,676 (2014)

 

Constitution:

When citing a whole federal or state constitution, you do not need a citation in your References page. Refer to the constitution in the body of your paper:

"The U.S. Constitution has 26 amendments." or "The United States Constitution has 26 amendments."
"The Massachusetts Constitution was ratified in 1780."

When discussing articles or amendments of constitutions, include a citation in your References page. The U.S. Constitution is abbreviated as “U.S. Const.” for both the References page and parenthetical citations. Use state abbreviations when citing state constitutions--find a listing of abbreviations on the Legal Information Institute's website https://www.law.cornell.edu/citation/4-500

U.S. Constitution article and amendment numbers are Roman numerals. State constitution article numbers are Roman numerals, amendment numbers are Arabic numerals. It is not necessary to include a date unless the amendment has been repealed (see below). URLs are not necessary for the reference. 


U.S. Constitution: U.S. Const. art. xxx, § x. 
State constitution: State Const. art. xxx, § x.

References page: U.S. Const. art. I, § 3. 
Parenthetical citation: (U.S. Const. art. I, § 3) 
Narrative citation: Article I, Section 3, of the U.S. Constitution  

References page: S.C. Const. art. XI, § 3. 
Parenthetical citation: (S.C. Const. art. IX, § 3) 
Narrative citation: Article IX, Section 3, of the South Carolina Constitution 

Amendment to the U.S. Constitution: U.S. Const. amend. xxx. 

References page: U.S. Const. amend. XIX. 
Parenthetical citation: (U.S. Const. amend. XIX) 
Narrative citation: Amendment XIX to the U.S. Constitution 

 

TESTIMONY:

Include the title as it appears on the document.  Add subcommittee and/or committee names, separating multiple names by a comma. Indicate number of the Congress, the year in parentheses, and “testimony of” with name of the person who gave the testimony in separate parentheses. If the testimony is online, include a URL. 


Federal testimony: 

Title of testimony, xxx Cong. (Year) (testimony of Testifier Name).

References page: Federal real property reform: How cutting red tape and better management could

achieve billions in savings, U.S. Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs,

114th Cong. (2016) (testimony of Norman Dong). 

Parenthetical citation: (Federal Real Property Reform, 2016) 
Narrative citation: Federal Real Property Reform (2016) 

 

Full federal hearing: 

Title of hearing, xxx Cong. (Year).

Reference page: Strengthening the federal student loan program for borrowers: Hearing before the U.S.

Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor & Pensions, 113th Cong. (2014). 

Parenthetical citation: (Strengthening the Federal Student Loan Program, 2014) 
Narrative citation: Strengthening the Federal Student Loan Program (2014)