"Broken Windows." The SAGE Glossary of the Social and Behavioral Sciences. Ed. Larry E. Sullivan. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Reference, 2009. 54. Gale Virtual Reference Library. A concept derived from an article by James Q. Wilson and George L. Kelling published in March 1982 in The Atlantic Monthly. The authors argued that neighborhood disorder creates fear and gives out crime-promoting signals. According to the theory, targeting small problems, such as vandalism on walls, litter on sidewalks, or broken windows in abandoned buildings, will prevent more serious crime from occurring. Based on this concept, the New York City Police Department implemented a “zero tolerance” policy for policing petty crimes in 1990. The 1990s was a time of significant decrease in crime in New York City, which was largely attributed to the policing approach’s focus on maintaining community order and safety. Critics of the theory argue that even those cities that did not adopt this approach saw their crime rates drop during this period. ... See also Zero Tolerance Policing
Broken Windows and Police
Zero Tolerance Policing
Quality of Life Enforcement
Community Oriented Policing
Neighborhoods and Crime
Disorder and Police and Neighborhoods
Broken Windows Theory
Wilson, J. Q., & Kelling, G. L. (1982, March). Broken windows: The police and neighborhood safety. Atlantic Monthly, pp. 29–38.
Applying 'Broken Windows' to the Police Atlantic Monthly (webpage).
Harcourt, Bernard E. (2001) Illusion of order : the false promise of broken windows policing. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, Reserve Room - 3 hour loan - HV 6025 .H297 2001
St. Jean, Peter K. B (2007) Pockets of crime: broken windows, collective efficacy, and the criminal point of view. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Stacks - HV6177 .S8 2007 also available as an e-book (John Jay use only)
Broken windows policing : a true tale of two cities. (2014) New York: Police Reform Organizing Project. Court Monitoring Project. Similar reports from PROP on NYPD policies and their consequences on the community.
George Kelling and William Sousa (2001) Do Police Matter? An Analysis of the Impact of New York City’s Police Reforms. New York: Manhattan Institute.
The NYC Department of Investigation (DOI) issued a report in June 2016 on data collected from 'C-summons' which are often the result of Broken Windows policing strategies.
The NYPD issued a report in 2015 Broken Windows and Quality-of-Life Policing in New York City
During this the second half of the 1990s under NYC Mayor Giuliani, NYC policing strategies significantly changed. A series of NYPD publications describe these strategies - some of which were quite controversial and long-lasting.
1995 The year of change this title has been digitized and is freely available on the John Jay College Library page of the Internet Archive
1997 Strategy '97: goal-oriented neighborhood policing (Special Collections Room - HV8148 .N52 N45 1997b, use by appt. only)
1997 The cutting edge of policing: civil enforcement for the 21st century (Special Collections Room - HV8148 .N52 N45 1997, use by appt. only) note: we also have a video with this same title.
1998 New York (N.Y.). Task Force on New York City Police/Community Relations. Report to the Mayor.
The page in this guide on Broken Windows.